The Commonwealth of Australia (Australia), referred to as Australia. Its territory area of 7686850 square kilometers, surrounded by the sea, is the world's only land covering a continent of the country. Australia, which has many unique flora and fauna and natural landscapes, is a multicultural immigrant country.
The term "Australia", originally intended as "the continent of the South", is made up of the Latin terraaustralis (land of the south). Europeans found the continent in the 17th century, mistakenly thought it was a piece of land through the Antarctic, hence the name "Australia".
Australia is a highly developed capitalist country, the capital of Canberra. As the second most economically developed country in the southern hemisphere and the 12th largest economy in the world, the world's fourth largest exporter of agricultural products, which is also the world's largest producer of minerals, is called "the country sitting on the tub." At the same time, Australia is also the world's number of sheep and the largest number of sheep export countries, also known as "riding in the sheep back country." Australia is highly urbanized and nearly half of the country lives in two major cities in Sydney and Melbourne, where several cities have been rated as one of the most livable places in the world. It is also a sports power, perennial held a number of global sports events. Australia is a founding member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and a member of the United Nations, the G20, the Commonwealth, the Pacific Security Treaty, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Pacific Islands Forum.
The word Australia is intended to be the "southern continent", from the Latin terraaustralis (the land of the South). As early as 40,000 years ago, indigenous people would multiply on Australia's land, with a total of 413,000 Australians (20xx census data).
In 1606, the ship of the Spanish navigator, Luis Vaezde Torres, passed the strait between Australia and New Guinea. In the same year, Duyfken, the Dutchman William Chancellor, was involved in Australia and was For the first time there are recorded alien people who landed in Australia and named it here for "New Holland".
In 1770, the British navigator Captain Cook (Captain James Cook) found the east coast of Australia, named it "New South Wales" and announced that this land belongs to the United Kingdom.
The British first put Australia as a place where the prisoners were exiled. On January 18, 1788, a fleet of six ships, led by Captain Philip, arrived in Australia's Botany Bay, where there were 736 prisoners. Eight days later, on January 26, 1788, they officially established the first British colonial area in PortJackson, Australia, where the population grew and became the largest city in Australia, Sydney, the name is to commemorate the British Minister of the Interior Sydney (Sydney). January 26 each year to become Australia's National Day (AustraliaDay).
In 1790, the first free immigrants from the United Kingdom moved to Australia, with Sydney as the center, gradually to the inland development, to 1803, the colonial area has been extended to today's Tasmania. The earliest inhabitants of Australia are indigenous.
In 1900 the inhabitants of all six colonies held a one-to-one referendum, using a vote to decide whether to reorganize the six colonies into a federal state, the result of which was to be unified in six places and to establish a single Australian federation. In July, the British Parliament passed the Australian Federal Constitution and the British Dominion Ordinance.
January 1, 1901, Australia's colonial areas to the state, the six colonial areas to become a federal, the establishment of the Australian Commonwealth. While passing the first constitution.
In 1927, the Australian capital moved to Canberra.
In 1931, the British Parliament passed the "Westminster Act", so that Australia gained internal and political autonomy, become an independent state in the Commonwealth.
In 1986, the British Parliament passed the "Australian Relations Act", Australia to obtain full legislative and judicial final.
In the 1850s, gold was found in New South Wales and Victoria. A large number of gold rush from Europe, the Americas and China flocked. The population of Australia surged from 400,000 in 1850 to 1.1 million in 1860. Since then many important gold mines have been discovered one by one, and found a lot of mineral deposits, these discoveries, so that Australia quickly get rich and development.
Australian films are influential in the world. Before the Second World War, Australia began to produce films, many of them excellent works. After the Second World War the Australian film industry in a standstill. It was not until the 1970s that the Australian film development company was set up by the leader of the Labor Party, led by Labor's leader, who was renamed the Australian Film Commission (AFC). The film committee has set up the government's own film production agency, the Australian Film Board, shooting a large number of films, becoming the first round of the history of Australian film production heat. Newspaper columnist and advertising giant Philip Adams was one of the celebrities who were actively involved in the film's hot.
So far, Australian producers and directors have won an indisputable position in the global film industry with their unique style, and have a strong impact on Hollywood, and many Hollywood studios indicate the need for Australian actors to star in. The Australian traveler in Hollywood is therefore known as "Eucalyptus Leaf Help", including a number of presenters, directors and actors who are now active in Hollywood. The famous directors include Baz Rulman, Alex Prius, George Miller and Wen Ziren. Famous actors include Russell Crowe, Nicole Kidman, Kate Blanchett, Hugh Jackman and Gay Pierce, etc., Heath Ledger, Sam Worthington.
In 1973, the Australian government established the Arts Council Literary Committee, literature began to develop, local literature has a certain international influence, such as Marcus Clark in 1874 to create "life imprisonment." In the late nineteenth century, the Australian jungle poets began to get out of the shadow of British traditional culture by seeking more "Australian" sense of belonging. Since the 1920s, the outstanding Australian literature has "Koonaldu", "Kabri Connie" and "Poor fellow, my hometown".
Australia has four press groups: Herald and Time magazine group, Murdoch news company, Fairfax and Parker News joint holding company. Among them, Murdoch news company developed the fastest, now also bought the British "The Times" and the United States "New York Post", has become an international newspaper group. The main newspapers are: "Australian newspaper", "Sydney Morning Herald", "Century", "Financial Review", "Canberra Times." Australia has more than 1,400 journals, "Australian Women's Weekly" is the largest circulation of publications. "Gazette" magazine (founded in 1880) is one of the oldest publications. The Australian news agency is Australia's largest news agency, headquartered in Sydney, 1964 and Reuters became associates.
Australia is a big sport, sports are quite popular. International sports arena, Australia's cricket, hockey, basket tennis, rugby and federated rugby have first-class levels; bicycles, rowing, swimming are also among the best in the world. Other domestic sports include Australian football, soccer, horse racing, racing, tennis, basketball, golf and track and field.
Australia has hosted two summer Olympic Games, namely the 1956 Melbourne Olympics and the 20xx Sydney Olympics. Australia's medal in the Olympic Games has long been the top five in the world, swimming and track and field projects usually bring many medals. In addition, Australia is one of the holy places of global tennis, one of the four Grand Slam of the Australian Open in January each year in Melbourne. Melbourne's Abel Park track is the first race of Formula One racing (F1). Australia's water sports is very powerful, long-term in the Olympic Games to achieve good results, "water lion," said.
AustralianRulesFootball is unique to Australia and the Australian Australian Football Federation (AFL) is very popular. Now the British football is also popular, the establishment of the A-League British Football League. In recent years, the Australian national soccer team has become one of the most popular group sports teams in Australia. In 20xx, it joined the Asian Football Association and performed well in the 20xx World Cup soccer tournament. After entering the 16th, the Australian national football team lost to the world champion Football team, in 20xx is the World Cup top ten semi-finals eight unbeaten record once again into the 20xx World Cup finals in South Africa, but eventually still in the first ring was eliminated.
Australia is a big tennis player, there are a number of Grand Slam tennis stars, such as Bo Kashi, Rhodes Lavo, Patrick Lough, Leiden Hewitt, Alicia Molik, Sa Mansa Stosur, Margaret Colt, John Newcomb and so on.
Australia's sports clubs are scattered throughout the country, and some high school and university sports clubs produce most of the sports elite for the country. In this regard, Australia is similar to the sporting country of the United States. Australian Tennis Open (English: AustralianOpen, referred to as: Australian Open) is one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. The match is usually held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in the last two weeks of January each year, and is one of the first to be held in the annual Grand Slam.
The Australian Open was founded in 1905 and has a history of more than 100 years. But compared with the other three Grand Slam events, the Australian Open is still the youngest. At the beginning of the competition was named the "Australasian Championship" (AustralasianChampionships); in 1969, the game into the "Open era." Since 1988, the competition has been carried out on the outdoor hard earth court in Melbourne Park.
Competition with men's singles and doubles, women's singles and doubles and mixed doubles and other projects. The men's singles championship trophy is the NormanBrookesChallengeCup, the women's singles championship trophy is the Daphne Akhurst Memorial Cup (DaphneAkhurstMemorialCup).
Ian James Thorpe is Australia's swimming star, has won five Olympic gold medals, is Australia's highest record so far.
Although Australia is often portrayed as a country dominated by rural areas, in fact, the dominant is the urban culture and metropolitan way of life, including the enjoyment of the world's delicacies.
Australians like to drink beer, leisure time, especially the weekend, many people like friends and friends to the bar drinking chat, enjoy music, or to the park barbecue. Australia's cities give people a sense of openness, there are many open parks and green dotted the meantime. The vast majority of parks in Australia are free, the park is not even the walls, all the way out of the park path. Convenient transportation can also take people effortlessly into the national parks in the suburbs of the city.
Unrestrained is the best general for Australians, Australia has a particularly strong atmosphere of freedom and freedom. People call their names every day (only called names, not names), between bosses and employees, between teachers and students. In the two cities of Sydney and Melbourne city center, usually at noon can usually see wearing a suit of white-collar workers or white-collar beauty and friends and colleagues together, sitting on the steps in front of the building to eat a simple lunch, such as sandwiches or hot dogs , White-collar people sitting on the street to eat lunch, the same is a modern metropolis, the same scene in Tokyo or Hong Kong such a place is unimaginable.
Australians love outdoor life, for example: climb the Sydney Bridge, three hundred and sixty degrees to enjoy the magnificent view of Sydney Harbor. Swim with dolphins, visit penguin paradise, come to Australia to see wild animals, ride camels walk, ride, adventure, all kinds of exciting activities everything.
The Australians are both cheerful and Westerners. They are interested in sports, such as surfing, windsurfing, horse racing, fishing, bowling, Australianrulesfootball, cricket, rugby, netball and swimming There are many enthusiasts.